Annals of Community Health (ISSN 2347-5455, eISSN 2347-5714), Peer Reviewed, Indexed Journal focusing exclusively on Community Medicine and Public Health

Biomedical Waste Management

According to the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) gross generation of BMW in India is 4,05,702 kg/day of which only 2,91,983 kg/day is disposed, which means that almost 28% of the wastes is left untreated and not disposed finding its way in dumps or water bodies and re-enters our system.

Karnataka tops the chart with 62,241 kg/day of BMW. • Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Kerala come next with 44,392 kg/day, 40,197 kg/day, and 32,884 kg/day of BMW generation respectively.

Around 53.25% of Health Care Establishments (HCEs) are in operation without the adequate authorization from State Pollution Control Board (SPCB)/Pollution Control Committee (PCC), which means that waste generated from such facilities, goes unaccounted and is dumped without any adequate treatment illegally.

Major Difference between BMW Rules 2011 vs. 1998


The Bio Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1998 contained 10 categories of wastes, which have been reduced in the present rules to 8.

The 2011 Rules have discarded Category No. 8 (containing liquid waste generated from laboratory, cleaning, washing and disinfection activities) and Category No. 9 (containing incineration ash).

However, laboratory wastes listed in Category 8 has been included in the present Category 3. The current rules have also cleared the confusion over the colour coding of the containers used for disposal of BMW. The Schedule II of the 1998 Rules creates a confusion regarding the disposal of Category 3 and Category 6 wastes, which could either be disposed in yellow or red coloured bags. Similarly, Category 7 wastes could also be disposed in red or blue bags. The present Rules have thus clarified the ambiguity and allotted one colour code to each category of waste.

Colour Coding and Type of Container for Disposal of BMW


  • Notes:
    1. Waste collection bags for waste types needing incineration shall not be made of chlorinated plastics.
    2. Category 3 if disinfected locally need not be put in containers/ Non-chlorinated plastic bags.
    3. The municipal waste such as office waste (like paper waste), kitchen waste, food waste and other non infectious waste shall be stored in black coloured containers/ bags and shall be disposed of in accordance with Municipal Solid Waste (Management and handling) Rules 2000.

Apart from the various categories of wastes, Schedule II of the Rules has also incorporated the storage and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated from the hospitals. The Rules expounds that the MSW such as paper waste, food waste and other non infectious wastes generated from the hospitals should be stored in black coloured bags/containers and disposed as per the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000.

Categories of Biomedical Waste management- 2011

@ Chemical treatment using at least 1% hypochlorite solution or any other equivalent chemical reagent. It must be ensured that chemical treatment ensures disinfection.
## Mutilation/ shredding must be such that so as to prevent unauthorized reuse.
@@ There will be no chemical pretreatment before incineration. Chlorinated plastics/ bags shall not be incinerated.

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