Self-Care Activities among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Karnataka
Introduction: Since the past three decades, there is increase in the prevalence of diabetes all over the world, this is particularly important in terms of the Indian subcontinent. The patients need to take active role in self-care to prevent complications. Self-care of the diabetics include eating healthy and calorie restriction, physically activities, monitoring of blood sugar levels on regular basis, regular medications, and lifestyle modifications. It is also noted in several studies that the regular self-care and adequate precautions are associated with the good outcomes. Aims and Objectives: This study was done with an aim to assess the practice of self-care activities among the diabetics. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional descriptive study, which was undertaken at a tertiary care hospital. Revised version of summary diabetes self-care activities questionnaire was used. Patients attending the hospital for outpatient services were interviewed in their own language after obtaining the consent. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS 20.1 trial version. Chi-square test and Student’s t-test were used in the present study. Results: In the present study, 38% of the patients were following healthy eating plan, only 22% of the study participants were incorporating fruits or vegetables in diets on all days of the week. About 13.6% of the participants, about 9% of the study participants consumed high-fat diet on all days, 51% of the participants did some form of physical activity for at least 30 min each day. About 10.6% of the participants did specific exercise session other than the routine physical activity on daily basis. Whereas 78.9% of the participants got the blood sugar testing done in the past 3 months. Whereas 92% of the participants adhered to the oral hypoglycemic treatment on all days. About 97% of the participants took insulin on all days of week. About 67.8% of the participants washed feet and 61% of them dried the spaces between the toes on all days of week. About 22.6% of them examined the feet and only 9.5% examined the inner surface of the footwear on all days of the week. Conclusion: The health-care providers should emphasize on the importance of the educating the diabetic patients regarding the complications and other aspects of the self-care practices.
Key words: Diabetes mellitus, self-care, summary diabetes self-care activities questionnaire
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