Biochemical Analysis for Iodine Deficiency among 612 Years Old School Children Residing in Rural Areas of Bagalkot District, Karnataka

. Gowrishankar, Shrinivas K Patil, Ashok S Dorle, Jayaraj R Mhetri

Abstract


Background: In India, iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is one of the major public health problems. In India, 93% of households were using adequately iodized salt (Iodine content ?15 ppm). The benefits of universal salt iodization has been seen in the population of urban areas due to better coverage and availability of packaged, fine iodized salt. The household availability of iodine through edible salt and the median urinary iodine concentration are the principal indicators of an effective program, as it is highly sensitive to recent changes in iodine intake. Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the iodine deficiency among 612 years old school children residing in rural areas of Bagalkot district by biochemical analysis. Methodology: The district survey was conducted from June 2018 to August 2018 using the method of Population Proportionate to Size sampling in the age group of 612 years old rural school children. In the selected 30 villages, the primary schools were visited, 540 household salt samples were collected, and 270 urine samples of school children were collected. Iodine content of the salt sample was estimated by the process called idometric titration and estimation of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was done by wet digestion method (The Sandell Koltoff reaction). Results: Out of 540 salt samples, 295 (54.6%) had adequate iodine concentration (?15 ppm) at household level and 245 (45.4%) salt samples had inadequate iodine concentration (<15 ppm). Out of 270 urine samples, 125 samples (46.2%) urinary iodine levels were >100 mcg/L. In 95 samples (35.2%), urinary iodine levels were in the range 5099.9 mcg/L, 13 samples (4.8%) were in the range of 2049.9 mcg/L, and 37 samples (13.8%) had urinary iodine levels <20 mcg/L. The median UIE was 85 ?g/L. Conclusion: Only 54.6% salt samples had adequate iodine concentration (?15 ppm) at household level. UIE of >100 mcg/L was observed only in 46.2% of urine samples. Adequately iodized salt availability and consumption among rural households in Bagalkot district were not satisfactory.

Key words: Iodine deficiency disorder, Iodized salt, Urinary Iodine excretion, Biochemical analysis


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