Determinants of Self-care Practices among Patients with Hypertension in the Rural Field Practice Area of a Medical College in Coastal Karnataka

Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Santosh k Yatnatti, Vesta P Rai, A G Balakrishna


Background: Hypertension is one of the leading causes for pre-mature deaths in all age groups. The primary treatment for hypertension is anti-hypertensive drugs, which alone is not efficient in control of hypertension unless self-care practices are followed. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the self-care practices and its determinants among patients with hypertension in one of the selected villages of the rural field practice area of a medical college in coastal Karnataka. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 187 patients with hypertension, aged 18 years and above, in Harekala village situated in the rural field practice area of a medical college in Mangaluru. The self-care practices were assessed using hypertension-self-care activity level effects questionnaire. Results: Mean age of the study participants was 56.65 years (10.91 years). Majority of the participants followed Islam religion (58.8%) and were below poverty line card holders (80.7%). Among adherence to self-care practices, anti-hypertensive medication adherence was observed among 88.8% participants, adherence to smoking and alcohol abstinence was found to be 84.5% and 90.9%, respectively. None of the study participants adhered to weight management practices. Male patients and those below the poverty line were found to be adhering more to physical activity (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a need for improvement in adherence to salt restricted diet, physical activity, and weight management practices. Primary health-care providers need to stress on these aspects during each patient contact to improve these actions.

Key words: High blood pressure, hypertension, rural health centre, self-care

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