An Assessment of Activities of Daily Living among Depressed Elderly using KATZ Index

Mohammed Sarosh Ahmed, Fawwad M Shaikh, Padmaja R Walvekar, Sameeran S Chate, M D Mallapur


Introduction: Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, decreased energy, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, and poor concentration. Due to this, the physical and social aspects of health are affected. Depression in elderly reduces their quality of life to a great extent making them dependent in performing activities of daily living (ADL). If this problem is not addressed, it may result in increased suffering, dysfunction, morbidity, and economic burden not only on the individual but also on the family and the nation as a whole. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the ADL among depressed elderly and identify the associated risk factors. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done among 850 participants aged 60 years and above residing in Ashok Nagar area, Belagavi. Data were collected by house to house visit using a predesigned questionnaire, which included sociodemographic details, KATZ ADL scale and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS- short form). Statistical analysis was done by applying Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of depression using GDS-15 was found to be 36.7%, with a higher preponderance in women than men (40.8% and 32.3%), respectively. Among the depressed elderly, the overall dependence in ADL was found to be 110 (35.3%). Complete dependence in ADL was found to be in 9 (2.9%) participants, and partial dependence was found in 101 (32.4%). Dependence among depressed elderly was found to be significantly associated with advancing age, female sex, lower socioeconomic status, unmarried status, and sedentary lifestyle (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated a significant higher prevalence of dependence among depressed elderly and identified its risk factors in an urban population of South India. Urgent steps are needed to be taken at the earliest to reduce the suffering and improve the quality of life among the elderly.

Keywords: Activities of daily living, depression, elderly, geriatric depression scale, KATZ index, risk factors

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